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    Dry Eye and Computer Vision Syndrome
    Experiments, Studies and Background Information
    For Elementary School, Middle School, High School and College Students and Teachers







    Studies and Experiments

    • How to Protect Your Eyes from Computer Vision Syndrome [View Experiment]
    • Eye blink based fatigue detection for prevention of Computer Vision Syndrome [View Experiment]
    • Dry Eye and Computer Vision Syndrome [View Experiment]
    • Dry Eyes [View Experiment]
    • Resolving Ocular Headaches, Dry Eyes, and Visual Discomfort [View Experiment]
    • Categorization of Factors Causing Asthenopia in Research Professors at the ITCJ by Reading with VDT: A Shared Experience [View Experiment]
    • Thesis: Effectiveness Of Self Instructional Module On Knowledge On Prevention Of Computer Vision Syndrome For Computer Professionals Working In A Selected Software Enterprise [View Experiment]
    • Thesis: Myofibroblasts and polyploid cells in the conjunctival surface after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [View Experiment]
    • Ergonomics for Computer Users - Vision [View Experiment]
    Background Information

    Definitions

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a temporary condition resulting from focusing the eyes on a computer display for protracted, uninterrupted periods of time. Some symptoms of CVS include headaches, blurred vision, neck pain, fatigue, eye strain, dry, irritated eyes, double vision, polyopia, and difficulty refocusing the eyes. These symptoms can be further aggravated by improper lighting conditions (ie. bright overhead lighting or glare) or air moving past the eyes (e.g. overhead vents, direct air from a fan).

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is an eye disease caused by eye dryness, which, in turn, is caused by either decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. It is found in humans and some animals.

    Dry Eye Syndrome (DES)

    Typical symptoms of Dry Eye syndrome (DES) or Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) are dryness, burning and a sandy-gritty eye irritation that gets worse as the day goes on. Symptoms may also be described as itchy, scratchy, stingy or tired eyes. Other symptoms are pain, redness, a pulling sensation, and pressure behind the eye. There may be a feeling that something, such as a speck of dirt, is in the eye. The resultant damage to the eye surface increases discomfort and sensitivity to bright light. Both eyes usually are affected.

    There may also be a stringy discharge from the eyes. Although it may seem strange, dry eye can cause the eyes to water. This can happen because the eyes are irritated. One may experience excessive tearing in the same way as one would if something got into the eye. These reflex tears will not necessarily make the eyes feel better. This is because they are the watery type that are produced in response to injury, irritation, or emotion. They do not have the lubricating qualities necessary to prevent dry eye.

    Because blinking coats the eye with tears, symptoms are worsened by activities in which the rate of blinking is reduced due to prolonged use of the eyes. These activities include prolonged reading, computer usage, driving, or watching television. Symptoms increase in windy, dusty or smoky (including cigarette smoke) areas, in dry environments, high altitudes including airplanes, on days with low humidity, and in areas where an air conditioner (especially in a car), fan, heater, or even a hair dryer is being used. Symptoms reduce during cool, rainy, or foggy weather and in humid places, such as in the shower.

    The main causes of DES are deficient tear production and abnormal tear composition.

    Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS)

    According to the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, computer vision syndrome affects some 90% of the people who spend three hours or more a day at a computer.

    In many cases, frequent computer users suffer from Computer Vision Syndrome, which is a degenerative eye problem which can result in severely reduced eyesight (Myopia), blurred vision, overall eye tiredness and even Glaucoma. Computer Eye Syndrome is an umbrella term for many problems but the causes of these problems can be easily identified. When using a computer due to the size and setup of the monitor and components it is necessary for the user to be within at least two feet of the monitor when performing any type of computational work. This presents many problems especially in older monitors due to an elevated amount of monitor glare, poor display quality and insufficient picture display refresh rates. Although these problems are more evident in older computers the newer models are not free from these problems either. Studies have been conducted into the correlation between computers and eye problems and it was found that the Ionizing radiation given off by monitors has severe detrimental effects on the eye and eyesight on a whole. They also state “Treatment requires a multidirectional approach combining ocular therapy with adjustment of the workstation” which shows these problems are quite easily solved with minimal investment from computer manufacturers through producing higher quality monitors with better resolution and refresh rates. The most common form of Computer Vision Syndrome is a condition termed Dry Eye, which results in itchy, sore and even the illusion that something is stuck in your eye. This condition is often caused by extensively long period looking at a computer screen

    Dry eye is a major symptom that is targeted in the therapy of CVS. The use of over-the-counter artificial-tear solutions can reduce the effects of dry eye in CVS.

    Asthenopic symptoms (see below) in the eye are responsible for much of the morbidity in CVS. Proper rest to the eye and its muscles is recommended to relieve the associated eye strain. Various catch-phrases have been used to spread awareness about giving rest to the eyes while working on computers. A routinely recommended approach is to consciously blink the eyes every now and then (this helps replenish the tear film) and to look out the window to a distant object or to the sky—doing so provides rest to the ciliary muscles. One of the catch phrases is the "20-20-20 rule": every 20 minutes, focus the eyes on an object 20 feet (6 meters) away for 20 seconds. This basically gives a convenient distance and timeframe for a person to follow the advice from the optometrist and ophthalmologist. Otherwise, the patient is advised to close his/her eyes (which has a similar effect) for 20 seconds, at least every half hour.

    Decreased focusing capability is mitigated by wearing a small plus-powered (+1.00 to +1.50) over-the-counter pair of eyeglasses. Wearing these eyeglasses helps such patients regain their ability to focus on near objects. People who are engaged in other occupations—such as tailors engaged in embroidery—can experience similar symptoms and can be helped by these glasses.

    Topics of Interest

    Computer-induced medical problems can be described as an umbrella term for the various problems a computer user can develop from prolonged and incorrect computer use. The medical problems that can arise from using computers can be generally defined as the many medical conditions a computer user may experience from using computers extensively over a prolonged period of time in an inefficient manner. The inefficiency being that the computer user may have poor etiquette when using peripherals for example incorrect posture when using a peripheral and when exposed to a situation of bad posture over an extensive period of time problems such as bad posture can occur.

    Asthenopiaor eye strain is an ophthalmological condition that manifests itself through nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, pain in or around the eyes, blurred vision, headache and occasional double vision. Symptoms often occur after reading, computer work, or other close activities that involve tedious visual tasks.

    For more information:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_vision_syndrome
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keratoconjunctivitis_sicca

    Source: Wikipedia (All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License and Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)

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