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    Famous DNA Scientists and Resources
    K-12 Level

    Famous DNA Scientists
    1869: Johannes Friedrich Miescher (1844 – 1895) was the first researcher to isolate and identify nucleic acid.
    1878: Albrecht Kossel (1853 – 1927) determined the chemical composition of nucleic acids.
    1919: Phoebus Levene (1869 – 1940) characterized the different forms of nucleic acid, DNA from RNA and identified the base, sugar and phosphate nucleotide unit.
    1927: Nikolai Koltsov (1872 - 1940) first to suggest the double helix idea.
    1928: Frederick Griffith (1879–1941): discovered that DNA carried hereditary information.
    1937: William Thomas Astbury (1898 - 1961) produced the first X-ray diffraction patterns that showed that DNA had a regular structure.
    1943: Oswald Avery (1877 - 1955) & Colin MacLeod (1909 -1972) & Maclyn McCarty (1911 – 2005): discovered that DNA is the “transforming factor” and that genes are made of DNA.
    1952: Rosalind Franklin (1920 – 1958): takes the first x-ray structure pictures of DNA crystals which are the basis for the DNA double-helix model of Watson and Crick.

    1952: Alfred Hershey (1908 - 1997) and Martha Chase (1927 - 2003) showed in the Hershey–Chase experiment that DNA is the genetic material of T2 phage virus.
    1953: James D. Watson (1928 - ), Francis Crick (1916 – 2004) and Maurice Wilkins (1916 – 2004): discovery of the double helical structure of DNA .
    1955: George Emil Palade (1912 - 2008), Romanian cell biologist: discovered the first ribosome (translates coded information, received from mRNA via DNA, into proteins).
    1958: Matthew Meselson (1930 - ) and Franklin William Stahl (1929 - ): final confirmation of the replication mechanism that was implied by the double-helical structure through the Meselson–Stahl experiment - supported the hypothesis that DNA replication was semiconservative which means that when the double stranded DNA helix was replicated, each of the two double stranded DNA helices consisted of one strand coming from the original helix and one newly synthesized.
    1960s: Har Gobind Khorana (1922 – 2011), Robert W. Holley (1922 – 1993) and Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927 – 2010) deciphered the genetic code.
    1960s: Sydney Brenner (1927 - ): proposed the concept of a messenger RNA (mRNA) (carries coded information from DNA to ribosomes that read this information and use it for protein synthesis what is called translation).
    1998: Andrew Z. Fire (1959 -) and Craig C. Mello (1960 - ) discovered the role of RNA interference (RNAi) in the silencing of gene expression.
    See also:
    Famous and Notable Geneticists

    DNA for Kids
    DNA for Kids
    DNA video for kids
    What Is a Gene?
    DNA - BBC, Norfolk Kids

    Basics for Beginners
    Tour of the Basics
    What is DNA? - Genetics Home Reference
    Basic Biology of DNA
    The Basics of DNA
    DNA, genes and chromosomes - BBC
    DNA Workshop - PBS

    What Are Genes, DNA and Chromosomes?
    AncestryDNA - Frequently Asked Questions
    Cells and DNA
    Genome Frequently Asked Questions

    General DNA Resources
    James Watson's and Francis Crick's seminal article (April 25, 1953) - the first publication which described the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA: Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid, Nature, 171st volume, pp. 737–738.
    How to Crack the Code - Nobel Foundation
    Journey into DNA - PBS
    DNA for the Beginning
    DNA - What It Is and How It Works
    DNA Workshop - PBS
    DNA - Wikipedia
    DNA - The Double Helix
    Unlinked DNA under electron microscope
    Rosalind Franklin's contributions to the study of DNA
    Clue to Chemistry of Heredity Found - The New York Times, 1953.

    Glossaries and Dictionaries
    Glossary of Genetics and DNA Terms
    DNA Glossary
    DNA Glossary

    DNA Timelines
    DNA Timeline - Santa Monica College
    DNA Science from Mendel to Today
    DNA Geneology Timeline
    Timeline of the History of Genetics
    DNA Timeline

    Putting DNA to Work - Koshland Science Museum
    DNA Kit and Science Museum Activities - genome.gov
    DNA Discovery Center - The Field Museum

    Biology and Genetics on Stamps
    Heredity and the Genetic Code - Sci-Philately, Buffalo University
    Philately and DNA
    Philately and Genetics
    Philatelic DNA

    Humor & Trivia
    DNA / RNA Protein Synthesis Online Quiz
    DNA Quiz
    100 Facts About DNA

    Science Fair Projects
    DNA / RNA
    DNA (Interdisciplinary Topic)

    Science Experiments
    Griffith's and Avery, MacLeod and McCarty's DNA Experiments

    Related Subjects
    Human Genome Project

    My Dog Kelly

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    Last updated: June 2013
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