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    Famous Evolution Scientists and Thinkers - Resources
    K-12 Level

    Evolution Scientists and Thinkers
    Anaximander (610 – 546 BC; Greek) and Empedocles (490–430 BC; Greek): proposed that one type of animal could descend from another type of animal.

    Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.), Greek: proposed that living things are imperfect actualizations of different fixed natural possibilities - "species", from Latin.

    John Ray (1628-1705), English: believed that species were designed by God, but showed differences caused by local conditions.

    Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698 – 1759), French: wrote about natural modifications occurring during reproduction and accumulating over many generations to produce new species.

    Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788), French: suggested that species could degenerate into different organisms.

    Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778), Swedish: classified humans among the primates.

    Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), English: proposed that all warm-blooded animals could have descended from a single micro-organism.

    William Paley (1743-1805), British: proposed that complex adaptations are evidence of divine design.

    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829), French: believed that living lineages are adapted to the environment by inheriting changes caused by use or disuse in parents.

    Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), English: continued human population growth would lend itself to poverty by means of a struggle for existence.

    Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), French: insisted that species were unrelated and fixed, their similarities reflecting divine design for functional needs.

    Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire (1772-1844), French: believed in the underlying unity of organismal design, and the possibility of the transmutation of species over time.

    Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873), British: was an outspoken opponent of Darwin's theory of evolution by means of natural selection.

    Sir Richard Owen (1804-1892), English: He agreed with Darwin that evolution occurred, but thought it was more complex than outlined in Darwin's On the Origin of Species.

    Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), Swiss: Opposed Charles Darwin's theories on evolution.

    Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882), English: the theory of evolution by natural selection - On the Origin of Species.

    Gregor Johann Mendel (1822 – 1884), Austrian: reported that traits were inherited in a predictable manner of elements (later known as genes).

    Thomas Henry Huxley (1824-1895), English: applied Darwin's ideas to humans, using paleontology and comparative anatomy to provide strong evidence that humans and apes shared a common ancestry.

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913), British: independently proposing a theory of evolution due to natural selection that prompted Charles Darwin to publish his own theory.

    August Weismann (1834 – 1914), German: the germ plasm theory, according to which inheritance only takes place by means of the germ cells—the gametes such as egg cells and sperm cells. Other cells of the body—somatic cells—do not function as agents of heredity.

    Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), German: claimed that an individual organism's biological development parallels and summarizes its species' evolutionary development (controversial recapitulation theory).

    Alfred Wegener (1880-1930), German: discovered continental drift - an important factor that was instrumental in creating the diversity of plants and animals.

    J.B.S. Haldane (1892 – 1964; British), Sewall Wright (1889 – 1988; American) and Ronald Fisher (1890 – 1962; English): founded population genetics - the study of allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of the four main evolutionary processes: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and gene flow.

    Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900 - 1975), Ukrainian-American: synthesis of evolutionary biology with genetics - instrumental in spreading the idea that it is through mutations in genes that natural selection takes place.

    Evolution for Kids
    The Evolution Theory
    Theory of evolution
    For Kids - Charles Darwin & Evolution
    Human Evolution - The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program
    Charles Darwin (1809 - 1882)
    A Science Odyssey: You Try It: Human Evolution
    Archaeology for Kids
    Becoming Human
    Human Evolution: The fossil evidence in 3D
    Evolution Video
    Journey of Mankind

    Biology and Evolutionary Theory FAQ
    Frequently Asked Questions About Creationism and Evolution
    Evolution FAQ
    Frequently Asked Questions About Evolution - PBS
    Evolution FAQ - PBS
    The Evolutionary Psychology FAQ

    Glossaries and Dictionaries
    Evolution Glossary - PBS
    Evolution Glossary
    Modern Theories of Evolution: Glossary of Terms
    Understanding Evolution Glossary
    Common Terms in Evolutionary Biology and Genetics

    Evolutionary Timeline
    Timeline of evolution
    Timeline of human evolution
    Epic of Evolution Timeline

    Evolution - Natural History Museum
    Human Evolution - Australian Museum
    Evolution - Fossil Museum

    Evolution on Stamps
    Evolution and the Fossil Record - Buffalo University
    Charles Darwin - 12 February 2009 - stamps and miniature sheet
    Honorary Darwin Stamps

    Humor & Trivia
    The Charles Darwin Quiz - Jokes and Science
    Darwin Jokes and Evolution - Jokes and Science
    Evolution Quizzes and Evolution Trivia - Fun Trivia

    Science Fair Projects and Experiments

    Evolution General Resources
    Darwin Correspondence Project
    Evolution Resources From the National Academies
    The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online - University of Cambridge
    Understanding Evolution - The University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley
    Cosmic Evolution: From Big Bang to Humankind
    Seven Bioscience Challenges - ActionBioscience.org
    Who was Charles Darwin? - About Darwin.com
    Evolution PBS
    Fossil Hominids: The Evidence for Human Evolution - The Talk.Origins Archive
    Monkey Trial - PBS
    Evolution - ENSI
    Darwin - American Museum of Natural History
    Charles Darwin: The originator of the evolution theory
    Alfred Wallace: Contributed to evolution no less than Darwin
    A History of Evolutionary Thought - UCMP

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    Last updated: June 2013
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