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Eugene Francois Vidocq (1775 – 1857), French criminal: founded the first private detective agency in 1833 in Paris; his life story inspired Victor Hugo and Honore de Balzac writings.
Charles Frederick Field (1805–1874), British: police officer with Scotland Yard and, following his retirement, a private detective. He was the basis for Inspector Bucket in Charles Dickens's novel Bleak House.
Ignatius Paul Pollaky (1828 – 1918), British-Hungarian: one of the first and best-known professional private detectives in Britain. He also worked with London's Metropolitan Police, instigating alien registration in Britain.
Allan Pinkerton (1819 – 1884), Scottish- American: detective and spy, best known for creating the Pinkerton National Detective Agency in the U.S..
Famous Notable Forensic Scientists
Archimedes of Syracuse (287 BC – 212 BC), Greek: identified gold - Eureka legend.
Song Ci (1186–1249), Chinese: provided the first written account of using medicine and entomology (study of insects) to solve criminal cases.
Ambroise Pare (1510 – 1590), French army surgeon: systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs.
Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, Italians: laid the foundation of modern pathology by studying changes that occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discovered a way of detecting arsenic in corpses, but large quantities.
Valentin Ross, German: learned to detect small amounts of arsenic also in the walls of a victim's stomach.
James Marsh (1794 – 1846), British: invented the Marsh test for detecting arsenic.
Juan Vucetich (1858 – 1925), Croatian-Argentinian: anthropologist and police official who pioneered the use of fingerprinting.
Joseph Bell (1837 – 1911), Scottish: Arthur Conan Doyle (author of Sherlock Holmes) served as his clerk and Doyle later stated that Sherlock Holmes was loosely based on Bell and his observant ways.
Ellis R. Kerley (1924 – 1998), Canadian foresic anthropologist: developed the "Kerley Method" which examines altered bones in order to deduce the age of a dead person.
Paul Leland Kirk (1902 – 1970), American: was instrumental in establishing criminalistics as an academic discipline.
Edmond Locard (1877 – 1966), French: was known as the Sherlock Holmes of France. He formulated the basic principle of forensic science: "Every contact leaves a trace" (the Locard's exchange principle).
William Ross Maples (1937 - 1997), American: His methods of bone study proved instrumental in closing cases that otherwise may have remained unsolved.
Albert Osborn (1858–1946), American: father of the science of Questioned Document Examination (QDE) - the forensic science discipline pertaining to documents that are in dispute in a court of law.
Skip Palenik (1946 - ), American: most famous for providing microscopy trace evidence analysis for many high-profile cases including the Oklahoma City Bombing.
Francis Edward Camps (1905 – 1972), English pathologist: notable for his work on the cases of serial killer John Christie and John Bodkin Adams.
Cedric Keith Simpson (1907 – 1985), English pathologist: co-founder of the Association of Forensic Medicine
Clyde Snow (1928 - ), American forensic anthropologist: Some of his skeletal confirmations include John F. Kennedy, King Tutankhamun, victims of the Oklahoma City bombing, and Dr. Josef Mengele.
Auguste Ambroise Tardieu (1818 – 1879), French: the Tardieu's syndrome (battered child syndrome).
Paul Theodor Uhlenhuth (1870 - 1957), German bacteriologist: developed the species precipitin test which could distinguish human blood from animal blood.
Sydney Smith (1883 – 1969), Scottish: superimposed a victim photograph over the X-ray negative of a victim's skull.