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Jabir ibn Hayyan (8th century), Arabic alchemist and astronomer: was the first to bring the experimental methods into alchemy and developed distillation and crystallization methods.
Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi (780 - 850), Muslim mathematician and astronomer: considered the inventor of algebra (the world algebra is derived from the title of his greatest mathematical work). He also introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western World and presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic.
Abu Hanifa ad-Dinawari (828-896): founder of Arabic botany.
Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi (9th century), Persian astronomer: estimated the Moon's diameter as 3,037 km and its distance from the Earth as 215,209 miles, which come close to the currently accepted values.
Rhazes (865 - 925), Persian polymath and physician: provided the first known description of smallpox.
Ahmad ibn Fadlan (10th century), Arabic explorer: provided a description of the Volga Vikings, including an eye-witness account of a ship burial.
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Albucasis) (936–1013), Arab physician: was the first physician to describe clearly the hereditary nature of haemophilia.
Al-Karaji (953 - 1029), Muslim mathematician and engineer: studied the algebra of exponents and wrote on the binomial theorem and Pascal's triangle.
Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (981–1037), Persian polymath: In his Book of Healing he provided detailed explanations for the formation of mountains and the origin of earthquakes. His The Canon of Medicine is considered one of the most famous books in the history of medicine.
Alhazen (965 - 1040), Muslim polymath: explained accurately the Moon illusion (an optical illusion in which the Moon appears larger near the horizon than it does while higher up in the sky).
Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) (1091–1161), Spanish Muslim physician and surgeon: was influential to the progress of surgery and improved surgical and medical knowledge describing several diseases and their treatments.
al-Jazari (1136–1206), Muslim inventor: invented water-raising machines, combination lock, gears and an early crankshaft and pump.
Ibn al-Baitar (1188–1248): Andalusian-Arab botanist and author of one of the largest botanical encyclopedias.
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201- 1274), Persian philosopher and mathematician: known for his five volume summary of the trigonometry of his time.
Ibn al-Nafis (1213 - 1288), Arabic Muslim physician: the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of blood, but his work was probably unknown by physicians in the western world until the 20th century.
Kamal al-Din al-Farisi (1267 - 1320), Persian: made major contributions to optics and number theory.
Ibn Battuta (1304 - 1368), Muslim Moroccan explorer: visited most of the known Islamic world, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China.
Ibn Khaldun (1332 - 1406), historian: developed one of the earliest nonreligious philosophies of history.
Piri Reis (1465 - 1555), Ottoman admiral, geographer and cartographer: known for his accurate maps and charts collected by him which contained detailed information on navigation describing the important ports and cities of the Mediterranean Sea.
Taqi al-Din (1526–1585), Ottoman Turkish Astronomer: invented precise methods of finding coordinates of stars.
Muslim Science and Technology Biographies and Resources
Islam & Science - Islamic Medicine Online
Renowned Scientists and Thinkers of Muslim Era
The Miracle of Islamic Science
Personalities in Islam - islamic-paths.org
Muslims Contributions to Medical History - Islamic Medicine on Line
Islamic Biographies - Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomer