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    Optics Milestones
    Timeline of Notable Optics Pioneers and Contributions

    Famous Optics Pioneers

    300 BC: Reflection of light from smooth surfaces: Euclid (325-265 BC), Ancient Greek mathematician (Optica).
    1021: Theory of Vision: vision takes place by light entering the eye and not vice versa: Alhazen (965 - 1040 AD), Persian Muslim scientist and polymath, (Book of Optics).
    1284: Eyeglasses (disputed): Salvino D'Armate (12581312), Italian.
    1550: Camera obscura with bi-convex lens: Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), Italian mathematician and physician.
    1590: Compound Microscope: Hans and Zacharias Janssen, Dutch spectacle-makers.
    1608: Telescope: Hans Lippershey (1570-1619), Dutch eyeglass maker.
    1621: Refractive index: Willebrord Snell (1580-1626), Dutch mathematician.
    1668: Reflecting telescope: Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727), English physicist and mathematician.
    1676: Single lens microscope: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), Dutch tradesman and scientist.
    1704: Spectrum of light prism experiments: Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727), English physicist, mathematician.
    1729: Achromatic Lens: Chester Moore Hall (1703 - 1771), British lawyer and inventor.
    1750: Lighthouse lenses: Georges de Buffon (1707-1788), French naturalist and mathematician.
    1804: Wave nature of light: double slit experiment: Thomas Young (1773 - 1829), English polymath.
    1816: Kaleidoscope: David Brewster (1781-1868), Scottish physicist.
    1823: Fresnel lens: Augustin-Jean Fresnel (1788-1827), French engineer.
    1825: Astigmatism: correcting eyeglasses using cylindrical lens: George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), English mathematician and astronomer.
    1839: Photovoltaic effect: Alexandre Becquerel (1820 - 1891), French physicist.
    1840s: Lens production: Carl Zeiss (1816-1888), German maker of optical instruments.
    1850: Speed of light measurement and demonstration that the velocity of light is a constant: Armand Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896), French physicist.
    1861: Light as a form of electromagnetic radiation: Maxwell's equations: James Clerk Maxwell (1831 - 1879), Scottish physicist and mathematician.
    1874: Refractometer: Ernst Abbe (1840 - 1905), German mathematician and physicist.
    1884: Mechanical Television (Nipkow scanning disk): Paul Nipkow (1860-1940), German engineer and inventor.
    1887: Photoelectric effect: Heinrich Hertz (1857 - 1894), German physicist.
    1888: Hand-Held Camera: George Eastman (1854-1932), American inventor.
    1899: Quantum theory of energy: exchange of energy between light and matter only occurs in discrete amounts - quanta: Max Planck (1858-1947), German physicist.
    1925: Leica camera lens: Max Berek (1886-1949), German physicist and mathematician.
    1938: Electron microscope: Ernst Ruska (1906-1988), German physician and biologist.

    Optics Biographies (Opticists)
    Michelson-Morley experiment proved the non-existence of ether
    Pioneers in the Optical Sciences - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
    Timeline of Electromagnetism and Classical Optics - Wikipedia
    An Anecdotal History of Optics - Taylor

    Optics Timelines
    Timeline in Optics - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
    Optics Timeline - Bilkent University

    Science Fair Projects and Experiments
    Optics Projects
    Sun & Light Projects
    Michelson-Morley: Detecting The Ether Wind Experiment
    The Discovery of the Spectrum of Light
    Light Energy Effects on Matter: Elementary School Experiments
    Fiber Optics: Refraction & Total Internal Reflection

    General Optics Resources
    Color Theory - worqx.com
    Optics for Kids I
    OpticsForTeens - Optical Society of America (OSA)
    Optics for Kids
    Science, Optics and You - Florida State University
    Atmospheric Optics

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    Last updated: June 2013
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