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Medicine and health science fair project:
Non-Invasive Respiratory Monitor

Science Fair Project Information
Title: Non-Invasive Respiratory Monitor
Subject: Medicine and health
Subcategory: Respiratory System / Medical Instruments / Electronics
Grade level: High School - Grades 10-12
Academic Level: Ordinary
Project Type: Building / Engineering
Cost: Medium
Awards: Google Science Fair Finalist
Affiliation: Google Science Fair
Year: 2014
Materials: 4093 CMOS chip, CMOS 4077, TTL 74LS266n, TTL 74LS132n, lm7805 regulator, 1nf capacitor, computer
Concepts: Heterodyning oscillator
Description: A wireless convenient device which can effectively monitor respiration without any direct contact with the patient. This respiratory monitor is very cheap – no more than $50.
Link: https://www.googlesciencefair.com/projects/en/2014/04d
Short Background

Non-Invasive Respiratory Monitoring

Monitoring a patient's respiratory status usually takes place in a hospital setting and may be the primary purpose for a patient being observed or admitted to a medical setting.

The physical signs of respiratory distress may present as a patient appearing short of breath, having an increased work of breathing, use of their accessory muscles, and changes in skin color, general pallor, or partial or complete loss of consciousness.

When the initial efforts of respiratory monitoring show evidence of a patient's inability to adequately oxygenate their blood, the patient may require mechanical ventilation.

Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive method for monitoring a person's O2 saturation (the fraction of oxygen-saturated hemoglobin relative to total hemoglobin (unsaturated + saturated) in the blood.).

Pulse oximetry measures solely hemoglobin saturation, not ventilation and is not a complete measure of respiratory sufficiency.

Masimo's Rainbow acoustic monitoring provides noninvasive and continuous measurement of respiration rate using an adhesive sensor with an integrated acoustic transducer that is applied to the patient's neck. Researchers have evaluated acoustic respiration rate (RRa) and found the acceptable accuracy and significantly fewer false alarms than traditional respiration rate monitoring methods, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) and impedance pneumography.

In 2012, Masimo began offering ultra-compact mainstream and sidestream capnography as well as multigas analyzers for end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (N2O), oxygen (O2), and anesthetic agents, for use in the operating room, procedural sedation, and in intensive care units (ICU). A multi-center study at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University Medical Center (Tucson, Arizona), and Children's Medical Center (Dallas), found that respiratory rate measured from noninvasive, acoustic monitoring had similar accuracy and precision as nasal capnography, the current standard of care when used in pediatric patients.

See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_monitoring

Source: Wikipedia (All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License and Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)

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Last updated: August 2014
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