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William James (1842 - 1910), American psychologist and philosopher: the founder of functional psychology - a psychological approach that considers mental life and behavior in terms of active adaptation to the person's environment.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832 - 1920), German physician and psychologist: founded the first laboratory for psychological research at the University of Leipzig in 1879.
Edward Titchener (1867 - 1927), British psychologist: founder of structuralism - an effort to describe the structure of the mind in terms of the most primitive elements of mental experience.
Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936), Russian mathematician and psychologist: used dogs to demonstrate classical conditioning - when a bell ring is repeatedly paired with food the outcome is salivation. After some time the bell begins also to trigger salivation without the presence of food.
Alfred Adler (18s70 - 1937), Austrian medical doctor and psychotherapist and founder of the school of individual psychology: maintained that feelings of helplessness during childhood can lead to an inferiority complex.
Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939), Austrian neurologist and psychologist: founded the discipline of psychoanalysis: a therapeutic method of treating mental disorders by investigating conscious and subconscious interactions in the mind.
John Watson (1879 - 1958), American psychologist: established the psychological school of behaviorism - stating that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns or modifying the environment.
Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961), Swiss psychiatrist and the founder of analytical psychology: developed the concepts of extroversion and introversion for the study of personality types.
Wolfgang Kohler (1887 - 1967), German psychologist, Max Wertheimer (1880 - 1943), Czech-American and Kurt Koffka (1886 - 1941), German psychologist: co-founders of the school of Gestalt psychology: suggesting that individuals experience things as unified wholes and rather than breaking down thoughts and behavior to their smallest element, the Gestalt position maintains that the whole of an experience is what matters.
Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970), American psychologist: created Maslow's hierarchy of needs - suggesting that people are first motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other needs.
B. F. Skinner (1904 - 1990), American behaviorist: invented the operant conditioning chamber (a laboratory apparatus used to study animal behavior) and founded radical behaviorism - it proposes that everything an organism does is a behavior triggered by external events and as a such it avoids any inferences about processes inside the organism.
Rollo May (1909 - 1994), American existential psychologist: founded existential psychotherapy - based on the belief that inner conflict within a person is due to that individual's confrontation with existence experiences.
Erik Erikson (1902 - 1994), Danish-American psychoanalyst: known for his theory on social development of human beings - eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. Erikson is also famous for coining the phrase identity crisis.
Noam Chomsky (1928 - ), American linguist and philosopher: favored cognitivism (exploring internal mental processes rather than behaviorism). He criticized the behaviorists' notions of "stimulus", "response", and "reinforcement", arguing that such ideas could be applied to animals but to human complex behaviors in only a superficial manner.
People and Discoveries: Human Behavior - PBS
Biographies of Psychologists - Psychology (psy.rin.ru)
Psychologists - Cartage
Psychology Biographies - ALLpsych online
Human Intelligence (Theory & Testing): Biographical Profiles - Indiana University
Founders of Neurology - UIC Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation
Famous Psychologists & Philosophers - PsychNet, UK
Psychologists and Psychiatrists - Encyclopedia of Psychology
History of Psychology Archives - Muskingum College
Sigmund Freud Resources
Psychology & Human Behavior Resources