Charles Darwin: Orchids and Evolution

Charles Darwin
Orchids and Evolution
For the Advanced Science Hobbyist: Repeat Charles Darwin's Orchid Pollination Experiments


Home Projects Experiments Warning!

Charles Darwin's Evolution Theory

An 1871 caricature was typical of showing Darwin with an ape body, identifying him in popular culture as the author of evolutionary theory.
Much is known about Darwin’s theory of evolution. A short description follows:

Under the constant struggle to exist, inferior organisms are more likely to die before they can reproduce. On average, superior living things with useful traits are more likely to survive and reproduce and thus to pass on their helpful features. As a result, the next generation changes slightly, the struggle for survival goes on among the descendants and the process is repeated. In other words, the struggle for existence selects organisms with helpful variations but makes others die out.

Another useful definition of evolution: A gradual development, from a less adaptable to a more adaptable form through the process of natural selection.

Darwin outlined his theory in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859 which was met with ridicule, antagonism and skepticism before it was accepted.

Charles Darwin's Experiments With Orchids

x Less known are Darwin's botany experiments, especially with orchids.

In 1862 Darwin showed that orchid's beauty was not “designed” by God to please humans but honed by natural selection to attract insect cross-pollinators.

But why the importance of cross-pollination? Darwin's botanical work was always related to his evolutionary mechanism. He believed that cross-pollinated plants would produce fitter offspring than self-pollinators, and he used considerable ingenuity in conducting thousands of crossings to prove the point.

Darwin published his results in a few books:
The Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids are Fertilised by Insects (1862)

The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom (1876)

The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species (1877)

More resources about Darwin’s experiments with orchids:
The genus Cypripedium (Ladyslipper Orchids) that Darwin Experimented With
Bouba - CC 3.0
Fertilisation of Orchids - Wikipedia
Darwin Correspondence Project - University Library, Cambridge
Darwin Correspondence Project - University Library, Cambridge
On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects (Chap. VI)
Reasonings February 2002
Darwin from Orchids to Variation - Wikipedia
Ironically named 'Star of Bethlehem' orchid supports Darwin's theory of evolution - gizmodo.com.au

Darwin got some support for his cross-pollination idea from modern science evidence:
Orchids Profit From False Advertising - James Owen, National Geographic News
Pollen Carryover, Geitonogamy, And The Evolution Of Deceptive Pollination Systems In Orchids
The effects of nectar addition on pollen removal and geitonogamy in the non-rewarding orchid Anacamptis Morio

Darwin also studied insectivorous plants, climbing plants, and the response of plants to gravity and light (sunlight, he thought, activated something in the shoot tip, an idea that guided future work on growth hormones in plants).

A few good general links about Darwin and evolution:
Darwin - American Museum of Natural History
AboutDarwin.com
Evolution Website - BBC
The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online - John van Wyhe
Evolution - PBS
Do You Believe in Evolution? - Bob Riggins
Rocky Road: Charles Darwin - Strange Science
Robert Fitzroy: The Captain of the HMS Beagle
Darwin Jokes and Evolution - Jokes and Science
Evolution Science Fair Projects and Experiments

How to grow orchids
Orchid Growing Instructions & Background Information



Scientists & Inventors
Ampère André-Marie
Archimedes
Baird John
Bell Alexander
Carver George
Cavendish Henry
Darwin Charles
DNA
Eastman George
Edison Thomas 1
Edison Thomas 2
Einstein Albert
Electric Motor
Eratosthenes
Faraday Michael
Fitzroy Robert
Foucault Léon
Franklin Benjamin
Fuel Cell
Galileo Galilei 1
Galileo Galilei 2
Gutenberg Johannes
Hertz Heinrich
Joule, James Prescott
Leonardo da Vinci
Leeuwenhoek Antonie
Marconi Guglielmo
Mendel Gregor
Michelson-Morley
Miller-Urey Experiment
Millikan Robert
Morse Samuel
Newton Isaac
Ohm Georg
Oxygen
Pavlov & Skinner
Photosynthesis
Pitch Drop Experiment
Radio Inventions
Spectrum of Light
Tesla Nikola
Torricelli Evangelista
Transistor
Tycho Brahe
Volta Alessandro
Whitney Eli
Wright Brothers
Young Thomas
Zuse Konrad
Ampère André-Marie

Home Fair Projects Experiments
Scientists & Inventors Science Jokes Warning!



Follow Us On:
       

Privacy Policy - Site Map - About Us - Letters to the Editor

Comments and inquiries:
webmaster@julianTrubin.com


Last updated: February 2018
Copyright 2003-2018 Julian Rubin