1895: Wilhelm Rontgen (1845 - 1923), German physicist: produced and detected X-rays (Rontgen rays) in 1895, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
1896: Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852 - 1908), French physicist and Nobel laureate: discovered radioactivity.
1896: Thomas Alva Edison (1847 - 1931), American inventor and businessman: discovered that calcium tungstate screens produced brighter X-ray images than before and based on this he invented the first commercially available fluoroscope which enabled real-time moving images of internal structures of the body.
1934: Frederic Joliot-Curie (1900 - 1958), French physicist and Nobel laureate and Irene Joliot-Curie (1897 - 1956), French scientist, the daughter of Marie Curie: artificially produced radionuclides (radioisotopes) - radioactive isotopes used in nuclear medicine for diagnosis, treatment, and research.
1936: John Lawrence (1904 - 1991), American physicist and physician: used phosphorus-32 (radioactive isotope of phosphorus) to treat leukemia.
1950s: David E. Kuhl (1929 - ), American scientist: invented Positron Emission Tomography (PET) - an imaging technique that produces a three-dimensional image of the inside of the body by using gamma rays.
1957: Ian Donald (1910 - 1987), Scottish physician: invented the ultrasound and tested with it, one year later, a pregnant woman.
1964: Charles Dotter (1920–1985), American vascular radiologist: known as the "Father of Interventional Radiology"; introduced image-guided medical procedures. For pioneering this technique he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978.
1972: Godfrey Hounsfield (1919 - 2004), English electrical engineer and Allan M. Cormack (1924 - 1998), South African-American physicist: invented CT scanner and shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1979 for the invention of CT scanning. Computed tomography (CT) or Computed axial tomography (CAT), is a medical imaging method employing computer processing which is used to generate a 3D images of the inside of an object from a large series of 2D X-ray images.
1977: Raymond Vahan Damadian (1936 - ), Armenian-American medical practitioner and inventor: built the first commercial MRI scanner.
Radiology Biographies - Radiologists
Figures In Radiation History - ORCBS
Marie Curie and the History of Radioactivity - BBC
Radioactivity: Historical Figures - The National Health Museum
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